tail — display the last part of a file
tail [-F | -f | -r] [-q] [-b number | -c number | -n number] [file …]
The tail utility displays the contents of file or, by default, its standard input, to the standard output.
The display begins at a byte, line or 512-byte block location in the input. Numbers having a leading plus (
+') sign are relative to the beginning of the input, for example,
-c +2'' starts the display at the second byte of the input.-‘) sign or no explicit sign are relative to the end of the input, for example,
Numbers having a leading minus (
-n 2” displays the last two lines of the input. The default starting location is
-n 10”, or the last 10 lines of the
The options are as follows:
The location is number 512-byte blocks.
The location is number bytes.
-f The -f option causes tail to not stop when end of file is reached, but rather to wait for additional data to be appended to the input. The -f option is ignored if the standard input is a pipe, but not if it is a FIFO.
-F The -F option implies the -f option, but tail will also check to see if the file being followed has been renamed or rotated. The file is closed and reopened when tail detects that the filename being read from has a new inode num-
ber. The -F option is ignored if reading from standard input rather than a file.
The location is number lines.
-q Suppresses printing of headers when multiple files are being examined.
-r The -r option causes the input to be displayed in reverse order, by line. Additionally, this option changes the meaning of the -b, -c and -n options. When the -r option is specified, these options specify the number of bytes,
lines or 512-byte blocks to display, instead of the bytes, lines or blocks from the beginning or end of the input from which to begin the display. The default for the -r option is to display all the input.